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What are Exchanges Proof of Reserves?

The idea of reserve proofing is an important concept to consider when investing in cryptocurrency exchanges.

As of now, there are over 400 active cryptocurrency exchanges worldwide. However, with the increasing number of exchanges, there has also been a growing number of fraudulent or failed exchanges in recent years. According to recent reports, over the past 2 years, more than 50 exchanges have either failed or been exposed as fraudulent, resulting in the loss of millions of dollars for users. These incidents have raised concerns about the safety of funds on these exchanges, and have highlighted the need for a mechanism to ensure the security of users’ funds.

Cryptocurrency Exchanges
Cryptocurrency Exchanges

One solution to this problem is the use of exchange proof of reserves. This is a form of audit that allows users of cryptocurrency exchanges to verify the actual amount of cryptocurrency held by the exchange. By performing an audit, an exchange can assure users that it is holding their funds as promised, and corroborate their safety of theirs.

The primary purpose of this mechanism is to protect users from the risks associated with holding their funds on exchanges, such as potential theft or misappropriation. This audit gives users peace of mind that the exchange is holding their funds as promised, and is a critical element of any cryptocurrency trading platform.

In this article, we will discuss who is taking part in this trend, and the various benefits of reserve proofing for the exchanges and their users. We will discuss why it is important for the cryptocurrency industry to embrace this new technology and the implications of proof of reserves for the security of users’ funds.

Definition of Proof of Reserves

Proof of Reserves is a cryptographic procedure that allows cryptocurrency exchanges to prove to their users that the former has funds, which they claim to have. The process of proof of reserves typically involves the exchange generating a cryptographic proof, also known as a “hash,” which proves the exchange holds a certain amount of cryptocurrency. The proof is generated by taking a snapshot of the exchange’s cryptocurrency wallets and then encrypting the data. This encrypted data, known as a “commitment,” is then published on the exchange’s website, or through other means of communication.

Users can then verify the proof of reserves by taking the commitment, using a mathematical algorithm to decrypt the data, and comparing it to the snapshot of the exchange’s wallets. If the data matches, it proves that the exchange holds the amount of cryptocurrency it claims to hold.

One example of an exchange that has implemented a proof of reserves is Bitfinex. The exchange regularly releases proof of reserves reports, which include a detailed breakdown of the exchange’s cryptocurrency holdings and the corresponding cryptographic proof. Other exchanges such as Binance and Coinbase have also implemented similar mechanisms.

This allows users to be sure that the exchange is not spending funds or making transactions until the user has released it, ensuring that the exchange is not engaging in any fraudulent activities.

Benefits of Proof of Reserves

Proof of Reserves (PoR) is a tool used by exchanges to ensure that users’ funds are accounted for and safe. It essentially provides a way to verify that the exchange has the amount of cryptocurrency that it claims to have. Adopting PoR provides users with transparency and accountability. By verifying that their reserves are correct, users can have peace of mind that their funds are safe and secure. Additionally, it also allows exchanges to comply with regulations, as well as increase customer trust and credibility.

When an exchange releases a proof of reserves report, it is essentially providing transparency to its users, ensuring that they can verify that the exchange holds enough funds to cover all the outstanding trades.

If an exchange fails a proof of reserves test, it means that the exchange does not have the funds to back the trades of its users. This could be due to several reasons such as misappropriation of funds, embezzlement, or poor financial management. In such cases, users are at risk of losing their funds, and they need to withdraw their funds immediately and avoid trading on the exchange.

To protect themselves, users should always verify the proof of reserves of exchange before depositing their funds. They should also look for exchanges that are transparent and regularly publish proof of reserves reports. Furthermore, users should look for an exchange that has been independently audited by reputable firms.

Some examples of exchanges that have passed proof of reserves tests include Bitfinex, Binance, and Coinbase. These exchanges have regularly published proof of reserves reports, and their claims of holding funds have been verified by independent audits. On the other hand, exchanges like QuadrigaCX and Cryptopia have failed proof of reserves tests. These exchanges were unable to prove that they held the funds they claimed to, and were found to have significant discrepancies between the funds they reported and the actual funds held. As a result, they faced financial and legal repercussions.

Regulatory Requirements for Exchanges

Exchanges have to comply with regulatory requirements to ensure the safety and integrity of the platform. These requirements vary from region to region, but some of the most common ones for exchanges are:

Know Your Customer (KYC) and Anti-Money Laundering (AML) regulations

These regulations require exchanges to undertake customer due diligence and obtain identifying information from customers. This typically includes information such as name, address, date of birth, and government-issued identification. The purpose of these regulations is to prevent financial crimes such as money laundering and terrorist financing. By collecting this information, exchanges can identify and mitigate risks associated with their customers.

Exchanges typically use a combination of automated and manual processes to verify the identity of their customers. This includes checking government-issued identification documents against databases, such as the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) list, to identify individuals and entities that are on a sanctions list.

Cybersecurity and Data Protection Measures

These measures are implemented to ensure the security of customer data. Exchanges typically use a combination of technical and organizational measures to protect customer data. This includes measures such as two-factor authentication, encryption, firewalls, and intrusion detection systems. They also have measures to detect and respond to data breaches, such as incident response plans, regular security testing, and penetration testing.

Capital Requirements

These requirements ensure that exchanges have sufficient financial resources to operate. This typically includes minimum capital requirements and net capital requirements. Minimum capital requirements are set by regulators and dictate the minimum amount of capital that an exchange must hold to operate. Net capital requirements dictate the minimum amount of capital that an exchange must hold after accounting for all liabilities. These requirements are intended to protect customers in the event of an exchange’s default or bankruptcy. By ensuring that exchanges have sufficient financial resources, regulators can reduce the risk of customer losses in the event of an exchange’s failure.

In conclusion, regulatory requirements for exchanges play a crucial role in ensuring the safety and integrity of the platform. By implementing the above measures, exchanges can protect their customers and reduce the risk of financial crimes and losses. Proof of reserves is also an important aspect of regulatory compliance, as it helps ensure that exchanges have sufficient funds to back all customer deposits, and are adhering to regulations related to the safety and security of their users. This can increase trust in the exchange and provide a safer environment for users to conduct their transactions.

How Proof of Reserves is Calculated


Proof of reserves is calculated by determining the total amount of funds held on behalf of users, divided by the total amount of cryptocurrency held. In this calculation, the amount available for withdrawal is not taken into account, instead, the total value of the user’s funds is considered. In many cases, a simple calculation of the total user balance divided by the total cryptocurrency balance is enough to determine the proof of reserves. However, some exchanges may require additional steps to ensure that the proof of reserves is accurate and correct.

A specific example of how proof of reserves is calculated is the Merkle tree proof. Merkle tree proof is a method where a tree structure is built with all the transaction hashes as leaves, and each non-leaf node is the hash of its child. The root of the tree represents the overall state of the system, and the leaf nodes represent individual transactions. This proof allows us to verify that a specific transaction is included in the tree without revealing any information about other transactions.

Formulaically, the proof of reserves can be calculated using the following steps:

  1. The exchange creates a Merkle tree with all the transaction hashes as leaf nodes and hashes each pair of child nodes to form the parent node.
  2. The exchange then publishes the root of the Merkle tree, known as the Merkle root, along with a list of selected leaf node hashes and their corresponding positions within the tree.
  3. A user can then take the published Merkle root and the selected leaf node hashes, and using the Merkle tree algorithm, can independently verify that the leaf node hashes are indeed included in the tree, and therefore the exchange holds the corresponding cryptocurrency, as represented by the leaf nodes.
  4. The user can also calculate the balance of the exchange by summing up all the leaf nodes that represent the exchange’s holdings.
  5. Finally, the user can compare the calculated balance with the published balance on the exchange’s website to verify that they match, providing evidence that the exchange holds the amount of cryptocurrency it claims to hold.

It’s important to note that the Merkle tree proof is just one example of proof of reserves calculation. There are other methods like Simple Ledger Protocol (SLP) and SPV proof, which are also used for proof of reserves calculation. These methods are all based on encryption and mathematical algorithms to prove the authenticity of the exchange’s holdings.

Examples of Exchanges Complying with Proof of Reserves

Exchanges must prove their reserves. This is done by verifying that the liquidity of the exchange is sufficient to cover its liabilities. The proof of reserves is an important tool for exchanges to demonstrate that they are compliant with financial regulations and are managing their customer deposits responsibly. Examples of exchanges that have successfully implemented a proof of reserves include Binance, Bitfinex, Kraken, Huobi, and OKEx. These exchanges have all passed independent audits from third-party firms, demonstrating that they are properly managing customer deposits. Additionally, these exchanges have implemented a variety of other measures to maintain their compliance, such as regular reviews from financial regulators and the use of cold storage wallets for storing large amounts of digital assets.

Potential Drawbacks of Proof of Reserves

Proof of reserves can be a costly and time-consuming exercise for exchanges. While proof of reserves can provide added security and transparency for users, there are potential drawbacks to consider:


Proof of reserves calculations can be complex and may require a certain level of technical expertise to understand and verify. This can make it difficult for some users to fully grasp and trust the proof.

Limited Coverage

Proof of reserves only verifies the cryptocurrency held by the exchange. It doesn’t cover other assets like cash or digital holdings of the exchange.

Limited Transparency

Proof of reserves may not reveal detailed information about an exchange’s holdings, as it only verifies the authenticity of the exchange’s holdings.

Lack of Regulation

Proof of reserves is currently a voluntary mechanism and there is no regulatory oversight to ensure that all exchanges comply with it.


The process of conducting a proof of reserves can be costly for the exchange in terms of time and resources.

Not foolproof

Proof of reserves is based on encryption and mathematical algorithms, but it is not foolproof and can be manipulated by malicious actors.

It’s important to note that proof of reserves is a valuable tool for ensuring the security and transparency of an exchange’s holdings, but it should be used in conjunction with other forms of due diligence and risk management.

Types of Audits Used to Verify Proof of Reserves

The process of verifying Proof of Reserves (or PoR) is done by performing audits. The purpose of these audits is to ensure that the crypto exchange has enough reserves to cover the liabilities of its customers. Several types of audits can be used to verify PoR.

The most common type of audit is a full audit, which is conducted by a third-party auditor such as Bitfury Crystal, Chainalysis, Cipher Trace, or Coin Metrics. A full audit is the most comprehensive form of audit, as it includes an in-depth review of the exchange’s trading history, financial statements, and compliance with applicable laws and regulations.

Other types of audits that can be used to verify PoR include partial audits, which focus on specific areas such as trading and customer deposits, as well as time-limited audits, which are conducted regularly to ensure that the exchange complies with the applicable laws and regulations.

The ideal outcome of a full or partial audit in Proof of Reserves is that the organization’s assets match the liabilities reported on its balance sheet, and are properly accounted for. This will ensure that the organization has enough assets to cover all of its liabilities, and these assets are properly accounted for and can be used to redeem the users’ assets.

A full audit in Proof of Reserves would examine all assets, while a partial audit would focus on specific assets or transactions. Negative outcomes of audits in Proof of Reserves can include the discovery of discrepancies between assets and liabilities, which can lead to a lack of confidence in the organization and cause potential legal or financial consequences.

Future of Proof of Reserves Compliance for Exchanges

The future of Proof of Reserves compliance for exchanges is bright. With the increasing scrutiny of regulators and financial institutions, exchanges must show that they hold sufficient reserves of customer funds. Proof of Reserves provides an accurate and transparent view of an exchange’s liquidity position and can be used to evaluate the financial health of the organization.

As more and more top crypto exchanges adopt Proof of Reserves, they will be able to prove their compliance with regulatory requirements and attract more customers. The increased transparency and trust will be beneficial to both customers and exchanges and will be the key to success for the exchanges in the long term.


In conclusion, proof of reserves is an important step in increasing trust in the cryptocurrency industry. With exchanges having to publicly publish their financials, traders and investors can ensure that their funds are safe. Additionally, with increased transparency, exchanges can hold themselves accountable to their users and assure that their funds are secure. Proof of reserves is something that all exchanges should strive for to ensure the security of their customers.

Nakul Shah
Nakul Shah - DLT Expert and Project Manager
53 Articles

Nakul Shah is a technology enthusiast, blockchain/AI consultant, author, and writer, passionate about innovative solutions. He is a regular speaker at conferences across the globe on blockchain, DLT, and fintech. Nakul specializes in writing content for fintech, gaming, emerging technology, and eCommerce sectors, and offer consultancy, training, and editorial services to clients across the globe. He is also a contributor to various publications, and has authored over 1000 articles, 100+ case studies, 75+ white papers, and a book on Blockchain titled “Blockchain for Business with Hyperledger Fabric.”

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Reviewed and Fact Checked by Eugene Abungana , Investment Analyst, Financial Analyst, and Institutional Trader